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Chloramines in Drinking Water

Chloramines are used as a disinfectant in public water supplies, to replace or supplement chlorine disinfection. Monochloramine is the most effective disinfectant of the chloramines, but reacts more slowly than chlorine. Chloramines remain active in water longer than chlorine.

Inorganic chloramines in water are: monochloramine (NH2Cl), dichloramine (NHCl2), and trichloramine (NCl3). Monochloramine is often present in drinking water with a pH of 7.5 to 9. As chlorine concentration increases and pH is reduced, dichloramine and trichloramine will form. Chloramine molecules are stable and have no net electrical charge.

“Indoor pool smell” is caused by dichloramine and trichloramine reacting with ammonia sources in swimming pools, such as urine, perspiration, body oils.

Health Effects of Chloramines in Water

Excessive or prolonged inhalation or ingestion can cause eye or nose irritation, stomach discomfort and anemia.

EPA Regulation of Chloramines in Water

US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (primary) maximum contaminant levels are:

  • 4.0 mg/L (measured as Cl2). (Typical municipal residual monochloramine concentration for drinking water disinfection is about 2.0 mg/L.)
  • World Health Organization (WHO) recommends maximum of 3.0 mg/L for drinking water disinfection.

Recommended Treatment Methods for Chloramines in Water

As a general rule of thumb, you should have a Qualified Premier Water Technician perform FREE WATER TEST to measure the level of chloramines in your water. There may also be additional elements that require different or additional treatment methods to guarantee chloramine removal.
The following solutions have been tested and approved for chloramine removal:

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